|CHAPTER 1 What Is Language?|
1 Deaf people sign language:
Spoken language and sign language differ(不同) only in their modality of expression.
2 Yet the ability to carry out:
ability to carry out the simplest conversation requires profound(深度的) knowledge that most speakers are unaware of.
|Linguistic knowledge includes the following points.|
Sentences And Nonsentences
1 Knowledge of the sound system (phonology音韻學 and phonetics語音學)
Knowing a language means knowing what sounds are in that language and what.
Sounds are not.
It means also knowing which sounds may start a word, end a word, and follow each other.
2 Knowledge of words(morphology詞彙學)
Sounds and sound patterns of our language constitute(構成) only one part of our linguistic knowledge.
2.1 Arbitrary Relation of Form and Meaning(獨有的型式和解釋關係)
If you do not know a language, the words (and sentences) of that language will be mainly incomprehensible(難以理解), because the relationship between speech sounds and the meanings they represent(代表) is, for the most part, an arbitrary one.
2.2 Arbitrary Relation of sign languages(手語的獨斷性)
Speak and sign language in the knowledge of the sound system are arbitrary.
This conventional and arbitrary relationship between the form(sound) and meaning (concept) of a ward is also true in sign languages.
2.3 Onomatopoeic(擬聲的) words
Sound symbolism in language: words pronunciation suggests their meanings. Most languages contain onomatopoeic words likes murmur that imitate(模仿) the sounds associated(關聯的) with the objects or actions they refer to.
2.4 The creativity of linguistic knowledge(語言的創造性)
Creativity is a language quality.
No dictionary can list all the possible sentences,because the number of sentences in a language is infinite.
Knowing a language means being able to produce and understand new sentences never spoken before.
That is the creative aspect of language.
Even some involuntary cries like"ouch" change according to the language we speak.
Step on an Italian speaker's toes and he will cry"ahi." French speakers of ten fill their pauses with the vowel sound that starts their word for "egg"-oeuf-a sound that does not occur in English.
3 Knowledge Of Sentences And Nonsentences(syntax句法學)
language not only allows us to produce and understand an infinite(無限) number of well-formed sentences. It also permits(允許) to distinguish(區分) formed of right or not.
John kissed the little old lady who owned the shaggy dog.
John is difficult to love.
It is difficult to love John.
John is anxious to go.
John, who was a student, flunked his exams.
Who owned the shaggy dog John kissed the little old lady.
It is anxious to go John.
Exams his flunked student a was who John.
4 Knowledge of the meaning – semantics(semantics語意學→meaning of sentence)
Linguistic knowledge and Performance
1 Linguistic competence → the linguistic knowledge of the language
2 Linguistic Performance: the actual use of the language.
Ex: high affective filter: emotion, nervous.(很容易緊張自我設限)
2.1 Lexicon ←→ mental dictionary =>; all the words used in a language.
2.2 Grammar in a broader sense. (廣義上的語法)
What Is Grammar?
It focuses on the actual use of the speakers of a language.
I am taller than he (傳統性文法prescriptive grammar)
I am taller than him(敘述性文法 descriptive = standard)
|1. Descriptive Grammars|
2 Morphology(詞彙學=單字): Rules of word formation.
3 Syntax(語法): Rules for combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences.
4 Semantics(語意學=句子): As well as the rules for assigning(
5 Lexicon(詞彙): The grammar, together with a ‘mental dictionary’.
|2. Prescriptive Grammars|
Linguistically, prestige and standard dialects do not have superior grammars.
Writing is not acquired naturally though simple exposures to other speaking the languages are, but must be taught.
|3. General Grammar=>Universal Grammar (UG):|
The nature of language in general and promoted(推崇) the idea of general grammar as distinct(不同) from special grammar.
Noam Chomsky’s view: that UG is part of biologically(生物) endowed(得天獨厚) human language faculty. A major aim of linguistic theory is to discover the nature of UG.
|4. Sign Languages|
This universality is expected(預期) because, regardless of the modality in which it is expressed, language is a biologically based ability.
|What Is Not (Human) Language|
|Language and thought(語言和思想)|
1 Linguistic determinism 語言決定論(strongest)
because it holds that the language we speak determines how we perceive and think about the world.[L.D.]
2 Linguistic relativism語言相對論(weaker)
it says that different language encode different categories and that speakers of different languages therefore think about the world in different ways.[L.Y.]
But the Sapir-Whorf strong hypothesis is wrong.
People’s thoughts and perceptions(觀念) are not determined by the words and structures of their language.
We are not prisoners(囚犯) of our linguistic systems.
※Politicians(政治家) and marketers certainly(肯定) believe that language can influence(影響) our thoughts and values.
※The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis holds that the particular language we speak determines or influences our thought and perceptions(認識) of the world.
|Chapter 2 Morphology: The Words Of Language|
|Content Words and Function Words|
1 Content words:
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs(副詞) sometimes called the open class words. Because we can and regularly(經常) do add new words to these classes.
2 Function words:
conjunctions, prepositions, articles, pronouns sometimes called the closed class words. Because they specify grammatical relations and have little or no semantic content.
2 Cannot be further analyzed. (不可再分解)
Bound and Free Morphemes:
[Free] knowledge of the individual(個別) Morphemes.
[bound]knowledge of the rules that combine them.(需合併)
Prefixes: regain (in the beginning).放在字首
"unhappy" consists of the prefix "un-"
Suffixes: acceptable (in the end). 放在字尾
looking 吃了 詞幹-後綴 出現在詞幹之後
Infixes: in (at) the middle. 放在字中
Circumfixes: in cat the beginning and end.可放在字首或字尾
ascattered 環綴＋詞幹＋環綴 一部分出現在詞幹前，另一部分出現在詞幹後
|Roots and stems|
Easy→root (字根):free morpheme.單一字根有意義。
Uneasy → prefix + stem (字幹)
Uneasily → stem + suffix
System → root
systematic → stem(system) + suffix(atic)
unsystematic → prefix(un) + stem(systematic)
Bound Roots (沒辦法自己存在)
|Derivational Morphology (Bound Morphology)|
Bound morphemes add a new word with a new meaning.
A morphology that doesn’t change the word either in spelling or pronciation.
Ex: hit, hit, hit.(發音沒有變化)
sit, set, set.(拼音沒有變化)
n.（不會變化單複數的名詞）: sheep, fish, deer, salmon, offspring, species.
Child → children
Foot → feet
ring, rang, rung.
|Making compounds plural(複合名詞複數)|
Is not always simply adding –s as in girlfriends or sheepdogs.
Ex: for many speakers the plural of mother-in-law is mothers-in-law, whereas the possessive form is mother-in-law’s.
People who live in the streams and lakes can’t control their bodies.(文法正確但沒人如此使用)
EX: Disobvious → 看起來像個字但它是錯的。
Coin a word
Invent a word
Make up a word
Back-Formation are words created by misinterpreting an affix look-alike such as -er as an actual affix,
so, for example, the verb peddle was formed under the mistaken assumption that peddler was peddle+ -er.
When the two words are in the same grammatical category,the compound will also be in this category:noun+noun=noun
In English, the rightmost word in a compound is the head of the compound.
The head is the part of a word or phrase that determines the grammatical category of the compound:
The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts;
a blackboard may be green or white.
Not everyone who wears a red coat is a Redcoat(英軍)。
Other compounds reveal other meaning relations between the parts,
which are not entirely consistent because many compounds are idiomatic(狸語).
A boathouse is a house for boats, but a cathouse is not a house for cats.
(It is slang for a house of prostitution or whorehouse.)
A jumping bean is a bean that jumps, a falling star is a star that(appears to) fall, and a magnifying glass is a glass that magnifies; but a looking glass is not a glass that looks, nor is an eating apple an apple that eats, and laughing gas does not laugh.
In the examples so far, the meaning of each compound includes at least to some extent the meanings of the individual parts.
However, many compounds nowadays do not seem to relate to the meanings of the individual parts at all.
A jack-in-a-box is a tropical tree, and a turncodt is a traitor.
A highbrow does not necessarily have a high brow, nor does a bigwig have a big wig, nor does an egghead have an egg-shaoed head.
2.un"civil"ized=Free Root (可單獨存在的字根)
6.noisy crow=phrase consisting of adjective plus noun
8.the crow=grammatical morpheme followed by lexical(語詞的) morpheme
9.crowlike=root morpheme plus derivational suffix
10.crows=root morpheme plus inflectional affix