Linguistic knowledge│語言學概論重點(一)

CHAPTER 1 What Is Language?

Linguistic knowledge
When you know a language, you can speak and be understood by others who know that language.

1 Deaf people sign language:
Spoken language and sign language differ(不同) only in their modality of expression.
說的語言和手語不同的地方只在表達的方式。

2 Yet the ability to carry out:
ability to carry out the simplest conversation requires profound(深度的) knowledge that most speakers are unaware of.
進行簡單的交談都需要深度的知識,但說話者都不知情。



Linguistic knowledge includes the following points.

sound system
words
Sentences And Nonsentences
meaning
phonology音韻學
phonetics語音學
Morphology
詞彙學
syntax句法學
Semantics
語意學

1 Knowledge of the sound system (phonology音韻學 and phonetics語音學)
音韻學:關於語言的心理層面。
語音學:語言的物理、生理層面。
Knowing a language means knowing what sounds are in that language and what.
Sounds are not.
It means also knowing which sounds may start a word, end a word, and follow each other.
中文釋義:聲音的系統是透過聲音,可以知道是或不是這個語言,它意謂著說:這個聲音開始於那一個字、那一個字的結束並依序跟隨。

2 Knowledge of words(morphology詞彙學)
詞彙學:詞彙學是以語言的詞彙為研究對象,研究詞彙的起源和發展、詞的構造、構成及規範。
Sounds and sound patterns of our language constitute(構成) only one part of our linguistic knowledge.
2.1 Arbitrary Relation of Form and Meaning(獨有的型式和解釋關係)
If you do not know a language, the words (and sentences) of that language will be mainly incomprehensible(難以理解), because the relationship between speech sounds and the meanings they represent(代表) is, for the most part, an arbitrary one.
中文釋義:聲音和音調的格式於語言構造只是語言知識的一部分,只在自己的語言體系中所代表的唯一意思。
附註:Arbitrary 獨斷的。

2.2 Arbitrary Relation of sign languages(手語的獨斷性)
Speak and sign language in the knowledge of the sound system are arbitrary.
一個系統換一個語言就沒有意思
This conventional and arbitrary relationship between the form(sound) and meaning (concept) of a ward is also true in sign languages.

2.3 Onomatopoeic(擬聲的) words
Sound symbolism in language: words pronunciation suggests their meanings. Most languages contain onomatopoeic words likes murmur that imitate(模仿) the sounds associated(關聯的) with the objects or actions they refer to.
中文釋義:在語言中,聲音的象徵於字的發音提供了它們的意思,大部分的語言包括了擬聲字,就像murmur,仿效的聲音和動作及物件是相連結的。

2.4 The creativity of linguistic knowledge(語言的創造性)
Creativity is a language quality.
中文釋義:創造性是語言的特質。
No dictionary can list all the possible sentences,because the number of sentences in a language is infinite.
Knowing a language means being able to produce and understand new sentences never spoken before.
That is the creative aspect of language.
Even some involuntary cries like"ouch" change according to the language we speak.
Step on an Italian speaker's toes and he will cry"ahi." French speakers of ten fill their pauses with the vowel sound that starts their word for "egg"-oeuf-a sound that does not occur in English.

3 Knowledge Of Sentences And Nonsentences(syntax句法學)
language not only allows us to produce and understand an infinite(無限) number of well-formed sentences. It also permits(允許) to distinguish(區分) formed of right or not.
中文釋義:語言不只允許我們產生或了解無限量的合乎文法句子;也允許我們去區別出合乎文法或不合乎文法的句子。

Grammatical sentences:
John kissed the little old lady who owned the shaggy dog.
John is  difficult to love.
It is difficult to love John.
John is anxious to go.
John, who was a student, flunked his exams.

Ungrammatical sentences:
Who owned the shaggy dog John kissed the little old lady.
It is anxious to go John.
Exams his flunked student a was who John.

4 Knowledge of the meaning – semantics(semantics語意學→meaning of sentence)
Linguistic knowledge and Performance
1 Linguistic competence → the linguistic knowledge of the language
2 Linguistic Performance: the actual use of the language.
Ex: high affective filter: emotion, nervous.(很容易緊張自我設限)
2.1 Lexicon ←→ mental dictionary =>; all the words used in a language.
2.2 Grammar in a broader sense. (廣義上的語法)

What Is Grammar?
It focuses on the actual use of the speakers of a language.

Ex:
I am taller than he (傳統性文法prescriptive grammar)
I am taller than him(敘述性文法 descriptive = standard)

1. Descriptive Grammars
1 Phonology(音韻字): Rules for combining sounds into words.規則合併成詞的聲音。
2 Morphology(詞彙學=單字): Rules of word formation.
3 Syntax(語法): Rules for combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences.
4 Semantics(語意學=句子): As well as the rules for assigning(
指定) meaning.
5 Lexicon(詞彙): The grammar, together with a ‘mental dictionary’.

2. Prescriptive Grammars
Prestige dialect-that variety of the language spoken by people in positions of power.(掌權者使用的語言)
Linguistically, prestige and standard dialects do not have superior grammars.
Writing is not acquired naturally though simple exposures to other speaking the languages are, but must be taught.
中文:寫作不是一個自然可以習得的,須要透過教導。

3. General Grammar=>Universal Grammar (UG):
General grammar was to reveal those features common to all languages.
The nature of language in general and promoted(推崇) the idea of general grammar as distinct(不同) from special grammar.
Noam Chomsky’s view: that UG is part of biologically(生物) endowed(得天獨厚) human language faculty. A major aim of linguistic theory is to discover the nature of UG.
普遍性語法:語言學的一個理論概念,所有語言的共通法,語言的架構 innate+talent(天生的)

4. Sign Languages
In short, signed languages resemble(類似) spoken languages in all major aspects(方面).
This universality is expected(預期) because, regardless of the modality in which it is expressed, language is a biologically based ability.
簡而言之,手語在主要的方向與口語是相類似的,不管它以何形式被展現,語言是一個生物學上的基本能力。

What Is Not (Human) Language
Displacement and discreteness (creativity) are two fundamental properties that distinguish human language from the communication systems of birds and other animals.
沒有創造性(creativity=discreteness)和代替性(displacement)這2種特性不能被稱為語言。

Language and thought(語言和思想)
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis(假說):
1 Linguistic determinism 語言決定論(strongest)
because it holds that the language we speak determines how we perceive and think about the world.[L.D.]
人的思想由他的語言所決定→語言跟思想之間的關聯。
2 Linguistic relativism語言相對論(weaker)
it says that different language encode different categories and that speakers of different languages therefore think about the world in different ways.[L.Y.]
你所學的語言會影響你看世界的角度,但不是決定的。

But the Sapir-Whorf strong hypothesis is wrong.
People’s thoughts and perceptions(觀念) are not determined by the words and structures of their language.
We are not prisoners(囚犯) of our linguistic systems.
※Politicians(政治家) and marketers certainly(肯定) believe that language can influence(影響) our thoughts and values.
※The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis holds that the particular language we speak determines or influences our thought and perceptions(認識) of the world.


Chapter 2 Morphology: The Words Of Language

Content Words and Function Words
Languages make an important distinction(分別) between two kinds of words – content words and function words.
1 Content words:
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs(副詞) sometimes called the open class words. Because we can and regularly(經常) do add new words to these classes.
2 Function words:
conjunctions, prepositions, articles, pronouns sometimes called the closed class words. Because they specify grammatical relations and have little or no semantic content.
連接詞,介詞,冠詞,代詞有時也被稱為封閉類的字。因為他們指定的語法關係,並只有些微的或語義解釋。

Morphemes
1 The minimal units of meaning. (最小意思的最小單位)
2 Cannot be further analyzed. (不可再分解)
Bound and Free Morphemes:
[Free] knowledge of the individual(個別) Morphemes.
[bound]knowledge of the rules that combine them.(需合併)

Affixes:綴詞
Affixes (prefix, suffix, infix and circumfix) are all bound morphemes.

Prefixes: regain (in the beginning).放在字首
"unhappy" consists of the prefix "un-"

Suffixes: acceptable (in the end). 放在字尾
looking 吃了 詞幹-後綴 出現在詞幹之後

Infixes: in (at) the middle. 放在字中
"saxomaphone"意指吃過飯;詞<中綴>幹;通常出現在詞幹之中,常見於婆羅洲-菲律賓語系或南島語系裡。

Circumfixes: in cat the beginning and end.可放在字首或字尾
ascattered 環綴+詞幹+環綴 一部分出現在詞幹前,另一部分出現在詞幹後


Roots and stems

Easy→root (字根):free morpheme.單一字根有意義。
Uneasy → prefix + stem (字幹)
就像角色扮演,不一樣的位置名稱跟著改變。
Uneasily → stem + suffix
EX:
System → root
systematic → stem(system) + suffix(atic)
unsystematic → prefix(un) + stem(systematic)
Bound Roots (沒辦法自己存在)

Derivational Morphology (Bound Morphology)

Bound morphemes add a new word with a new meaning.
(改變了詞性,衍生出另一個字和字義發音可能會有變化)

Inflectional Morphology(八大詞類)
-s(third-person singular), -s, -'s, -es, -ed, -en -ing, -er, -est.

Zero-form Morphology(沒有變化的詞彙)

A morphology that doesn’t change the word either in spelling or pronciation.
並不能改變這個詞無論是在拼寫或發音。

Ex: hit, hit, hit.(發音沒有變化)
sit, set, set.(拼音沒有變化)
n.(不會變化單複數的名詞): sheep, fish, deer, salmon, offspring, species.

Child → children
Foot → feet
ring, rang, rung.

Making compounds plural(複合名詞複數)

Is not always simply adding –s as in girlfriends or sheepdogs.
Ex: for many speakers the plural of mother-in-law is mothers-in-law, whereas the possessive form is mother-in-law’s.

Lexical gaps(沒有這樣使用,文法上正確)

People who live in the streams and lakes can’t control their bodies.(文法正確但沒人如此使用)
EX: Disobvious → 看起來像個字但它是錯的。

Word Coinage造字方法

Coin a word
Invent a word
Make up a word

1.Back-Formation(回朔)
2.Compound
3.Acronym(縮寫)

Back-Formation
Back-Formation are words created by misinterpreting an affix look-alike such as -er as an actual affix,
so, for example, the verb peddle was formed under the mistaken assumption that peddler was peddle+ -er.
1.peddler->peddle
2.sightseeing->sightsee
3.stoker->stoke
4.editor->edit

Compound Word
複合字的字,由第二個組成的詞性決定。(重音第一個;詞性第二個)

When the two words are in the same grammatical category,the compound will also be in this category:noun+noun=noun
Girl(名詞)+Friend(名詞)=名詞
Fighter(名詞)+bomber(名詞)=名詞
Home(名詞)+work(名詞)=名詞
Paper(名詞)+Clip(名詞)=名詞
Elevator(名詞)+Operator(名詞)=名詞
Land(名詞)+Lord(名詞)=名詞
Mail(名詞)+Man(名詞)=名詞

Adjective+Adjective=Adjective
Bitter(形容詞)+Sweet(形容詞)=形容詞
Icy(形容詞)+Cold(形容詞)=形容詞
Red(形容詞)+Hot(形容詞)=形容詞
Worldly(形容詞)+Wise(形容詞)=形容詞

In English, the rightmost word in a compound is the head of the compound.
The head is the part of a word or phrase that determines the grammatical category of the compound:
noun+adjective=Adjective

Head(名詞)+Strong(形容詞)=形容詞
Poor(形容詞)+House(名詞)=名詞
White(形容詞)+Wash(動詞)=動詞

The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts;
a blackboard may be green or white.
Not everyone who wears a red coat is a Redcoat(英軍)。

Other compounds reveal other meaning relations between the parts,
which are not entirely consistent because many compounds are idiomatic(狸語).

A boathouse is a house for boats, but a cathouse is not a house for cats.
(It is slang for a house of prostitution or whorehouse.)

A jumping bean is a bean that jumps, a falling star is a star that(appears to) fall, and a magnifying glass is a glass that magnifies; but a looking glass is not a glass that looks, nor is an eating apple an apple that eats, and laughing gas does not laugh.

In the examples so far, the meaning of each compound includes at least to some extent the meanings of the individual parts.
However, many compounds nowadays do not seem to relate to the meanings of the individual parts at all.

A jack-in-a-box is a tropical tree, and a turncodt is a traitor.
A highbrow does not necessarily have a high brow, nor does a bigwig have a big wig, nor does an egghead have an egg-shaoed head.

樹狀圖-Tree Diagrams








判斷斜體的字

1.terroriz"ed"=inflectional(八大詞類) suffix(字尾)
2.un"civil"ized=Free Root (可單獨存在的字根)
3.terror"ize"=Derivational(非八大:改變詞性) suffix
4."luke"warm=Bound root(不可單獨存在的字根)
5."im"possible=derivational prefix
6.noisy crow=phrase consisting of adjective plus noun
7.scarecrow=compound noun
8.the crow=grammatical morpheme followed by lexical(語詞的) morpheme
9.crowlike=root morpheme plus derivational suffix
10.crows=root morpheme plus inflectional affix

deactivation=de+act+active+activate+activation
replaces=re+place+s
retroactive=re+tro+active
befriended=be+friend+ed
televise=tele+vise
margin=margin
endearment=en+dear+ment
psychology=psych+ology
unpalatable=un+palat+able
holiday=holi+day
grandmother=grand+mother
morphemic=morphe+mic
mistreatment=mis+treat+ment
saltpeter=salt+peter
airsickness=air+sick+ness
bureaucrat=bure+au+crat
democrat=demo+crat
airstocrat=aristo+crat
plutocrat=pluto+crat
democracy=demo+crat+cracy
democratic=demo+crat+cratic
democratically=demo+crat+crati+cally
democratization=demo+crat+cratiza+tion
democratize=demo+crat+crati+ze
democratizer=demo+crat+cratiz+cratizer
democratizing=demo+crat+cratiz+ing
democratized=demo+crat+cratiz+ed

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